Space missions with people and trips to the Moon 1960-1965

15/08/2021

Let's take a turn and tell you first all the expeditions on the Moon from 1962 to 1965 (those from 1960-1961 are in the other sections). NASA launched three more impact probes on the Moon: Ranger 3, Ranger 4, Ranger 5 on January 26, April 23 and October 18, all in 1962. The Soviet Union also launched Moon E-6 No.2 on January 4, 1963, Moon E-6 No.3 on February 3, 1963, and Moon 4 on April 2, 1963, all of which were unsuccessful. NASA (Americans) launched Ranger 6 on January 30, 1964 and Ranger 7, Ranger 8 and Ranger 9 on July 28, 1964, February 17, 1965, and March 21, 1965, respectively, which were space impact probes. All succeeded, out of the Ranger 6, which failed. The Soviet Union then sent Moon E-6 No.6 and Moon E-6 No.5 on March 21, 1964 and April 20, 1964, respectively. Both with failure. The Soviet Union then launched a spacecraft that failed to leave Earth's orbit on March 12, 1965, named Cosmos 60. Then followed from the Soviet Union: Moon E-6 No.8 on April 10, 1965 which was a landing probe and failed. Then came the Soviet Union: Moon 5, Moon 6, Zond 3, Moon 7 and Moon 8, which started on May 9, 1965, June 8, 1965, July 18, 1965, October 4, 1965 and December 3, 1965, respectively. All but Zond 3 failed, with Zond 3 succeeding. All but Zond 3 were Landing Probes, Zond 3 being a flight near the Moon. 

Here the meaning of ship can also mean program. Since 1961, researchers have been convinced that they can send people into space. On April 12, 1961, aboard the Vostok 1, Yuri Gagarin became the first man to reach space and make an Earth orbit, thus opening a new chapter of the Universe. It was sent by the Soviet Union. Then from the Soviet Union comes Gherman Titov who makes his first day flight aboard the Vostok 2 between 6-7 August 1961 with 17 complete Earth orbits. And the Americans from NASA launched two people into space who made suborbital flights. The first was Alan Shepard on May 5, 1961 aboard the Mercury-Redstone 3 (Freedom 7) at an altitude of 116 miles. The second was Virgil "Gus" Grissom on July 21, 1961 aboard the Mercury-Redstone 4 (Liberty Bell 7). at an altitude of 118 miles. In 1962, from the Americans come: John Glenn who was also the first American to make an orbital flight (3 complete Earth orbits) on February 20, 1962 aboard the Mercury-Atlas 6 (Friendship 7), Scott Carpenter (the second American to make an orbital flight on May 24) 1962 aboard Mercury-Atlas 7 (Aurora 7), Wally Schirra who was an astronaut of the Mercury program on October 3, 1962 aboard the Mercury-Atlas 8 (Sigma 7). The Soviet Union also sent two astronauts into space, who made another story: the first time two ships were simultaneously in Earth orbit. They were: Andrian Nikolaev on August 11, 1962 until August 15, 1962 aboard Vostok 3, and on board Vostok 4: Pavel Popov 12 August 1962-15 August 1962. In 1963 there were several events that took place. The Americans managed the first direct transmission with an astronaut, of course American. He was Gordon Cooper aboard the Mercury-Atlas 9 (Faith 7) on May 15, 1963. Then he hated the first pilot to fly twice into space, also sent by the Americans as Joseph A. Walker. On board the ship X-15 Flight 90 on July 19, 1963 reaching an altitude of 106 km. He reached a higher altitude, exactly 108 km on August 23, 1963 aboard the X-15 Flight 91. The Soviet Union also came with a spectacular flight, the longest in history to date. The one who set the performance is Valery Bykovsky between June 14 and June 19, 1963 aboard Vostok 5. The next performance of the Soviet Union was that it sent the first woman into space. This is: Valentina Tereshkova from June 16, 1963 to June 19, 1963, so on June 19, 1963 Valentina and Valery were both in Earth orbit, the second success for two astronauts to be in Earth orbit at the same time. In 1964, the only flight was from the Soviet Union, but it was the first multi-person flight, it was a biomedical research. This crew consisted of: Vladimir Komarov, Konstantin Feoktistov and Boris Yegorov aboard Voskhod 1 from 12 October 1964 to 13 October 1964. However, in 1965 there were several missions from the Americans and one from the Soviet Union.  As we have said, the Soviet Union had only one mission in 1965. This consisted of Aleksei Leonov and Pavel Belyayev between March 18 and March 19, 1965 aboard Voskhod 2 for another exploration of outer space. The Americans followed with Virgil "Gus" Grissom, who later became a pilot in Air Force One, and John W. Young, who would later step on the moon. They boarded the Gemini 3 on March 23, 1965 and showed for the first time that orbital maneuvers could be performed. James McDivitt and Edward White (who later became an Air Force One pilot) followed aboard the Gemini 4 from June 3 to June 7, 1965. They marked a new flight into space and explored space close to Earth's orbit. Then a new record was set by Americans for everyone: The first flight that lasts a week. The flight was executed by Gordon Cooper and Charles Conrad from August 21 to August 29, 1965 aboard the ship Gemini 5. Then followed the ship Gemini 7 which had the astronauts in it: Frank Borman and James Lovell on December 4-December 18, 1965, setting another record: two weeks in space for the first time of a human crew and the first meeting with the Gemini 6 ship that was on another mission. Gemini 6, also called Gemini 6A, then had on board: Walter Schirra and Thomas Stafford (astronaut who will also participate in Gemini 9A). Gemini 6 or Gemini 6A took off from America on December 15, 1965 and returned on December 16, 1965, also establishing the first meeting with Gemini 6 or as they are also called: Gemini 6A.

Tomorrow will follow the astronauts' travels, as well as other missions! Subscribe to stay up to date!